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Answer 1

A covalent bond is formed through the sharing of a pair of electrons, typically one electron from each atom in the bond. A coordinate covalent bond in a coordination complex forms when one atom from a ligand donates a pair of electrons into an empty orbital of the other atom, usually a metal.

Answer 2

The type of ligand attached to the central atom in a complex ion determines how the degenerate d-orbital energies will be split. In a weak-field complex, the d orbitals split with a small energy difference. In a strong-field complex, the d orbitals split with a large energy difference. The spectrochemical series describes an ordered list of strong-field to weak-field ligands. The energy required for electronic transitions between the split d orbitals determines the wavelength of light absorbed by the complex.
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Question 1

What is a coordinate covalent bond?

Question 2

What is the difference between a weak-field complex and a strong-field complex?
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Answer 1

a low-spin octahedral Co3+ complex

Answer 2

The transition metals lose their outer s electrons before losing any of their d electrons. Since the outer s orbital holds two electrons, the loss of these electrons when forming an ion results in a +2 oxidation state.
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Question 1

Which of the following species is diamagnetic?
◦ an isolated gas-phase Cu2+ ion
◦ a high-spin octahedral Cr2+ complex
◦ an isolated gas-phase Cr3+ ion
◦ a low-spin octahedral Co3+ complex

Question 2

Why is +2 a common oxidation state for transition elements?
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Answer 1

H2NCH2CO2-

Answer 2

[Rh(CN)6]3-